The evidence for sex differences between females and males in disease mechanisms, clinical presentation and natural history of cardiovascular diseases, as well as the response to medical and interventional treatment strategies is overwhelming.
The present review provides an overview of the hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, their pathophysiology, diagnosis and management.
Sex and gender affect almost every aspect of heart failure, from epidemiology and risk factors, to pathophysiology, phenotype, response to medical, non-medical and device therapy and ultimate outcomes.
Both sex, the biological differences between women and men, and gender, the sociologically constructed differences in one of the two sex categories, influence the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Cardiovascular disease arises from known cardiac side effects of several anti-cancer therapies, but also cancer itself promotes cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, cardiovascular diseases predispose to future development of cancer.
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